Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) Packaging
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a versatile and popular viral vector used for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. AAVs have emerged as one of the most effective vehicles for gene therapy due to their ability to transduce a wide variety of mammalian cell types and their non-pathogenicity and low immunogenicity in human.
VectorBuilder offers superior quality AAV packaging services to support your AAV-based gene therapy experiments. We have developed a series of proprietary technologies and reagents that have greatly improved recombinant AAV production protocols in terms of titer, purity, potency and consistency, especially for the AAV vector systems used in our vector cloning services. As a result, we have a growing base of highly satisfied customers who come back to us time after time for their AAV vector cloning and AAV packaging needs. In addition to research-grade AAV, we also offer GMP-grade AAV manufacturing for clinical applications.
Types of AAV offered
- Single-stranded AAV (ssAAV) and self-complementary AAV (scAAV)
- 18 serotypes: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6.2, 7, 8, 9, rh10, DJ, DJ/8, PHP.eB, PHP.S, AAV2-retro, AAV2-QuadYF and AAV2.7m8
Price and turnaround
|Scale||Application||Typical Titer||Minimum Titer||Volume||Price (USD)||Turnaround|
|Pilot||Cell culture||>1012 GC/ml||>2x1011 GC/ml||250 ul (10x25 ul)||$399||10-20 days|
|Medium||1ml (10x100 ul)||$549|
|Large||>5x1012 GC/ml||>2x1012 GC/ml||1ml (10x100 ul)||$999|
|Ultra-purified pilot||Cell culture & in vivo||>2x1013 GC/ml||>1013 GC/ml||100 ul (4x25 ul)||$1,149||20-30 days|
|Ultra-purified medium||500 ul (10x50 ul)||$1,649|
|Ultra-purified large||1 ml (10x100 ul)||$2,549|
GC = Genome copies
|For non-ultra-purified scales||For ultra-purified scales|
|Your custom AAV||Your custom AAV|
Free: control virus
Add-on purchase (optional): ultra-purified control virus
The control AAV is designed to match the biological application of the custom virus and to be used for testing AAV transduction. For example, if the custom virus overexpresses a gene, then the control virus provided will be EGFP control AAV (AAV overexpressing EGFP), and if the custom virus expresses an shRNA against a gene, then the control virus provided will express a scramble shRNA. Detailed information on the control virus is shown below:
|Vector System||Control Virus Vector Name||Control Virus Vector ID|
|AAV gene expression system||pAAV[Exp]-CMV>EGFP:WPRE||VB190926-1395dab|
|AAV U6-based shRNA knockdown system||pAAV[shRNA]-EGFP-U6>Scramble_shRNA||VB180117-1020znr|
|AAV miR30-based shRNA knockdown system||pAAV[miR30]-CMV>EGFP:Scramble_miR30-shRNA:WPRE||VB190813-1134mnj|
|AAV CRISPR system||pAAV[Exp]-CMV>EGFP:WPRE||VB190926-1395dab|
Shipping and storage
Our AAV is stored in PBS buffer and is shipped on dry ice. Upon receiving, it should be stored at -80°C for long term (stable for at least 1 year), or -20°C for short term, e.g. 2-3 weeks. Thawed AAV virus can be stored at 4 °C for 1-2 weeks. Although AAV is more stable than many other virus (e.g. lentivirus) and can be frozen and thawed several times with minimal loss of virus activity, it is best to avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles in practice.
AAV production and QC
For our recombinant AAV manufacturing, the transfer plasmid carrying the gene of interest (GOI) is co-transfected with our proprietary Rep-cap plasmid and helper plasmid encoding adenovirus genes (E4, E2A and VA) that mediate AAV replication into HEK293T packaging cells. After a short incubation period, viral particles are harvested from cell lysate or supernatant depending on serotype and concentrated by PEG precipitation. For ultra-purified AAV (in vivo grade), viral particles are further purified and concentrated by cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient ultracentrifugation. We use a qPCR-based approach to measure AAV titer.
For each AAV produced by VectorBuilder, quality control includes titer measurement, sterility testing for bacteria and fungi, and mycoplasma detection. If the transfer vector encodes a fluorescent protein, we would perform transduction test to detect corresponding fluorescence. Additionally, for ultra-purified AAV, we routinely sample virus quality by SDS-PAGE analysis and endotoxin assay.
Recommended AAV serotypes
|AAV1||Smooth muscle, CNS, brain, lung, retina, inner ear, pancreas, heart, liver|
|AAV2||Smooth muscle, CNS, brain, liver, pancreas, kidney, retina, inner ear, testes|
|AAV3||Smooth muscle, liver, lung|
|AAV4||CNS, retina, lung, kidney, heart|
|AAV5||Smooth muscle, CNS, brain, lung, retina, heart|
|AAV6||Smooth muscle, heart, lung, pancreas, adipose, liver|
|AAV6.2||Lung, liver, inner ear|
|AAV7||Smooth muscle, retina, CNS, brain, liver|
|AAV8||Smooth muscle, CNS, brain, retina, inner ear, liver, pancreas, heart, kidney, adipose|
|AAV9||Smooth muscle, lung, liver, heart, pancreas, CNS, retina, inner ear, testes, kidney, adipose|
|AAVrh10||Smooth muscle, lung, liver, heart, pancreas, CNS, retina, kidney|
|AAV-DJ||Liver, heart, kidney, spleen|
|AAV-DJ/8||Liver, brain, spleen, kidney|
|AAV2.7m8||Retina, inner ear|
|Tissue type||Recommended AAV serotypes|
|Smooth muscle||AAV1, AAV2, AAV3, AAV5, AAV6, AAV7, AAV8, AAV9, AAVrh10|
|CNS||AAV1, AAV2, AAV4, AAV5, AAV7, AAV8, AAV9, AAVrh10, AAV-PHP.eB|
|Brain||AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, AAV7, AAV8, AAV-DJ/8|
|Retina||AAV1, AAV2, AAV4, AAV5, AAV7, AAV8, AAV9, AAVrh10, AAV2.7m8|
|Inner ear||AAV1, AAV2, AAV6.2, AAV8, AAV9, AAV2.7m8|
|Lung||AAV1, AAV3, AAV4, AAV5, AAV6, AAV6.2, AAV9, AAVrh10|
|Liver||AAV1, AAV2, AAV3, AAV6, AAV6.2, AAV7, AAV8, AAV9, AAVrh10, AAV-DJ, AAV-DJ/8|
|Pancreas||AAV1, AAV2, AAV6, AAV8, AAV9, AAVrh10|
|Heart||AAV1, AAV4, AAV5, AAV6, AAV8, AAV9, AAVrh10, AAV-DJ|
|Kidney||AAV2, AAV4, AAV8, AAV9, AAVrh10, AAV-DJ, AAV-DJ/8|
|Adipose||AAV6, AAV8, AAV9|
* Please note that the ITRs carrying your gene of interest (GOI) is from the AAV2 genome. Different serotypes are distinguished by the capsid protein serotype.Click here to view the amino acid sequence of the major viral capsid protein 1 (VP1) for different AAV serotypes >>
How to Order
Order both vector cloning and virus packaging
Order virus packaging of your own vector
If customer-supplied AAV plasmids are used in packaging, please send them to us following the Materials Submission Guidelines. Please strictly follow our guidelines to set up shipment to avoid any delay or damage of the materials. All customer-supplied materials undergo mandatory QC by VectorBuilder which may incur $100 surcharge for each item. Please note that production may not be initiated until customer-supplied materials pass QC.
What features does AAV have comparing to other viral vectors?
|Tropism||Broad||Broad||Ineffective for some cells||Depending on viral serotype|
|Can infect non-dividing cells?||Yes||No||Yes||Yes|
|Stable integration or transient||Stable integration||Stable integration||Transient, episomal||Transient, episomal|
|Maximum titer||High||Moderate||Very High||High|
|Primary use||Cell culture and in vivo||Cell culture and in vivo||In vivo||In vivo|
|Immune response in vivo||Low||Low||High||Very low|
How is AAV titer determined at VectorBuilder?
We measure the physical titer of AAV by directly extracting viral genome from lysed viral particles, and then using qPCR to accurately quantify the copy number of viral genome (using the copy number of ITR region as a proxy) in the stock. AAV titration services using other methods (e.g. ddPCR, TCID50) can be purchased separately.
What is VectorBuilder's guarantee for AAV titer and turnaround?
Our titer guarantee applies to AAV vectors for which the region being packaged into virus (from 5’ ITR to 3’ ITR) is below the AAV cargo limit (4.7 kb). For sizes above this limit, the region packaged into the virus may be truncated and result in loss-of-function. Additionally, we may not be able to guarantee titer in the following situations:
- Serotypes 4, 6 and DJ/8 which can only achieve 30-50% of the titer of the other serotypes.
- Vectors containing sequences that could adversely affect the packaging process such as toxic genes (e.g. proapoptotic genes), genes that compromise the integrity of packaging cells or virus (e.g. membrane proteins that cause cell aggregation), and sequences prone to rearrangements or secondary structures (e.g. repetitive or highly GC-rich sequences).
- Customer-supplied transfer plasmid containing undisclosed sequences or atypical ITRs that may introduce uncertainties to packaging efficiency.
- Customer-supplied rep-cap plasmid and/or helper plasmid.
Our estimated turnaround is the time from production initiation to completion. It does not include waiting time for any customer-supplied materials (e.g. template DNA or viral vectors), QC of such materials, and transit time for shipping final deliverables to the customer.