Popular ORFs

VectorBuilder offers many popular vector components that users can choose from when designing their vectors. The tables below provide detailed information on these popular components, which are listed separately by category.
Fluorescent Reporters
Name Description Application Notes Color Structure Maximum Excitation (nm) Maximum Emission (nm) Brightness (% of EGFP) References Sequence
EGFP Enhanced green fluorescent protein; codon optimized based on a variant of wild type GFP from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria Commonly used green fluorescent protein; ranked high in brightness, photostability and pH stability among all fluorescent proteins. Green Monomer (may form weak dimer) 484 507 100 Nucleic Acids Res. 24:4592 (1996) View
sfGFP Superfolder green fluorescent protein from Aequorea victoria; GFP variant S30R, Y39N, N105T, Y145F, I171V and A206V Folds well when fused with a variety of other polypeptides; fast folding, highly stable. Green Monomer (may form weak dimer) 485 510 160 Nat Biotechnol. 24:79 (2006) View
EmGFP Emerald green fluorescent protein; variant of EGFP generated by mutagenesis Enhanced photostability and brightness compared to its predecessor EGFP. Green Monomer (may form weak dimer) 487 509 116 Methods Cell Biol. 58:19 (1999) View
TurboGFP Also known as maxGFP; green fluorescent protein from maxillopoda Fast maturation; ranked high in brightness, photostability and pH stability among all fluorescent proteins. Green Dimer 482 502 112 Mol Biol Evol. 21:841 (2004) View
hrGFP Humanized recombinant green fluorescent protein derived from Renilla reniformis Low cytotoxicity. Green Monomer 500 506 100 J Biol Chem. 254:781 (1979) View
d2EGFP Destabilized EGFP due to addition of PEST sequence from mouse Odc1 gene Fast turnover (fluorescence half life is 2 hours). Green Monomer 488 507 100 J Biol Chem. 273:34970 (1998) View
NLS-EGFP EGFP with nuclear localization signal on both ends Nuclear localization. Green Monomer (may form weak dimer) 484 507 100 Engineered by VectorBuilder View
ZsGreen1 Bright green fluorescent protein derived from a Zoanthus sp. reef coral High solubility; bright emission; rapid chromophore maturation. Green Tetramer 493 505 250 Nat Biotechnol. 17:969 (1999); J Histochem Cytochem. 55:931 (2007) View
EGFP(S65T) Enhanced green fluorescent protein with S65T mutation Higher expression in plant than GFP Green Monomer (may form weak dimer) 484 507 100 Curr Biol. 6:325 (1996) View
mNeonGreen Yellow-green fluorescent protein derived from a tetrameric fluorescent protein from the cephalochordate Branchiostoma lanceolatum Brightest monomeric green or yellow fluorescent protein; superior photostability; good acid tolerance; fast maturation; excellent fusion tag for traditional imaging as well as stochastic single-molecule super resolution imaging; can be used for FRET. Green or Yellow Monomer 506 517 276 Nat Methods. 10:407 (2013) View
Venus Variant of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) generated by mutagenesis; YFP is itself a variant of EGFP generated by mutagenesis Fast maturation and high tolerance to acidosis and Cl- compared to its predecessor YFP. Yellow Monomer (may form weak dimer) 515 528 156 Nat biotechnol. 20:87 (2002) View
EYFP Enhanced yellow fluorescent protein, GFP variant S65G/V68LS72A/T203Y Excitaton and emission are sensitive to pH; can be pH indicator in cytosol and nucleus. Yellow Monomer (may form weak dimer) 513 527 150 Science. 273: 1392 (1996); Structure. 6:1267 (1998) View
YPet Derived by combining mutations from Venus and YFP3; all these variants trace their origins to EGFP Reduced pH sensitivity but slower folding rate compared to its predecessor Venus; can be used in conjunction with CyPet for FRET applications. Yellow Monomer (may form weak dimer) 517 530 238 Nat Biotechnol. 23:355 (2005) View
Cerulean Improved ECFP With improved signal-to-noise ratio; 2.5-fold brighter than ECFP; can be used for FRET. Cyan Monomer (may form weak dimer) 433 475 79 Nat Biotechnol. 22:445 (2004) View
CyPet Variant of cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) generated by mutagenesis; CFP is itself a variant of EGFP generated by mutagenesis Improved protein folding rate compared to its predecessor CFP; can be used in conjunction with Ypet for FRET applications. Cyan Monomer (may form weak dimer) 435 477 53 Nat Biotechnol. 23:355 (2005) View
EBFP Blue variant of EGFP generated by mutagenesis Low fluorescence and low photostability. Blue Monomer (may form weak dimer) 383 445 27 Biochem. 46:5904 (2007) View
TagBFP Also known as mTagBFP; blue variant of TagRFP generated by mutagenesis Rank high in brightness, photostability and pH stability among blue fluorescent proteins. Blue Monomer (may form weak dimer) 402 457 99 Chem Biol. 15:1116 (2008) View
TagBFP2 Also known as mTagBFP2; improved variant of TagBFP generated by I174A mutation Higher stability and brightness; rapid chromophore formation. Blue Monomer (may form weak dimer) 399 454 121 PLoS One. 6: e28674 (2011) View
dTomato Dimeric variant of the Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRed) generated by mutagenesis Fast maturation but slightly lower brightness compared to its predecessor DsRed. Orange Dimer 554 581 142 Nat Biotechnol. 22:1567 (2004) View
tdTomato Tandem dTomato generated by the fusion of two copies dTomato. Exceptionally bright red fluorescent protein; low aggregation and low acid sensitivity. Orange Monomer (nonaggregating tandem dimer) 554 581 283 Nat Biotechnol. 22:1567 (2004) View
DsRed_Express2 Fast maturing variant of the Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRed) generated by mutagenesis High solubility, fast maturation, reduced green emission and reduced cytotoxicity compared to its predecessor DsRed. Orange Tetramer 554 591 72 Nat Biotechnol. 20:83 (2002) View
TurboRFP Derived from the sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor Fast maturation; ranked high in brightness and pH stability among red fluorescent proteins. Orange Dimer 553 574 187 Nat Methods. 4:555 (2007) View
mRFP1 Monomeric red fluorescent protein 1; variant of DsRed generated by mutagenesis Fast maturation but lower brightness compared to its predecessor DsRed. Red Monomer 584 607 37 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 99:7877 (2002) View
mCherry Variant of mRFP1 generated by mutagenesis Commonly used red fluorescent protein; fast maturation compared to its predecessor, mRFP1. Red Monomer 587 610 47 Nat Biotechnol. 22:1567 (2004) Ver 1 Ver 2
mApple Photostable monomeric derivative of DsRed Brighter than mCherry; constant photostability. Red Monomer 568 592 109 Nat Methods. 5:545 (2008) View
mKate2 Katushka2 far-red fluorescent protein Fast maturation; high pH-stability and photostability; low cytotoxicity; a superior fluorescent tag for imaging in living tissues. Red Monomer 588 633 74 Biochem J. 418: 567 (2009) View
Selection Markers
Name Description Selection Drug Usage Application Notes References Sequence
Neo Neomycin resistance gene Geneticin (G418) Positive selection Allows cells to be resistant to geneticin (G418). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 81:6466 (1984) View
Puro Puromycin resistance gene Puromycin Positive selection Allows cells to be resistant to puromycin. Gene. 62:121 (1988) View
Hygro Hygromycin resistance gene Hygromycin B Positive selection Allows cells to be resistant to hygromycin B. Gene. 56:117 (1987) Ver 1 Ver 2 Ver 3
Bsd Blasticidin resistance gene Blasticidin Positive selection Allows cells to be resistant to blasticidin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1219:653 (1994) Ver 1 Ver 2
deltaTK Truncated thymidine kinase that converts ganciclovir (GCV) into a toxic metabolite that inhibits DNA synthesis Ganciclovir (GCV) Negative selection Allows cells to be killed by ganciclovir (GCV); can be used in embryonic stem cells to generate knockout mice without causing sterility in mice. Genesis. 28:31 (2000) View
CodA E.coli cytosine deaminase that catalyzes 5-fluorocytosine into toxic 5-fluorouracil 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) Negative selection Allows cells to be killed by 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 89:33 (1992) View
Bar Phosphinothricin acetyltransferase gene Glufosinate (phosphinothricin) Positive selection Allows plant to be resistant to phosphinothricin. Plant Mol Biol. 21:871 (1993) View
Neo/Kana Neomycin phosphotransferase II gene G418 or Kanamycin Positive selection Allows plant to be resistant to G418 or Kanamycin. Methods Mol Biol. 44:201 (1995) View
Hygro Hygromycin resistance gene Hygromycin B Positive selection Allows plant to be resistant to Hygromycin B. Biotechnol Lett. 29:1793 (2007) View
DTA Diphtheria toxin A - Negative selection Induces cell apoptosis by inhibiting EF-2 synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 87:9918 (1990) View
DTR Simian diphtheria toxin receptor Diphtheria toxin (DT) Negative selection Cells expressing DTR are sensitive to diphtheria toxin (DT); DTR can be used for conditional and targeted cell ablation. Cell. 69:1051 (1992) View
Note : 
  • Some components have different versions that differ slightly in sequence but are functionally equivalent. VectorBuilder may use different versions depending on context.
Dual Reporters
Name Description Fluorescence Selection Drug Application Notes References Sequence
EGFP/Neo EGFP fused with Neo Green Geneticin (G418) Allows cells to be visualized by green fluorescence and resistant to geneticin (G418). Engineered by VectorBuilder View
EGFP/Puro EGFP fused with Puro Green Puromycin Allows cells to be visualized by green fluorescence and resistant to puromycin. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
EGFP/Hygro EGFP fused with Hygro Green Hygromycin B Allows cells to be visualized by green fluorescence and resistant to hygromycin B. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
EGFP/Bsd EGFP fused with Bsd Green Blasticidin Allows cells to be visualized by green fluorescence and resistant to blasticidin. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
mCherry/Neo mCherry fused with Neo Red Geneticin (G418) Allows cells to be visualized by red fluorescence and resistant to geneticin (G418). Engineered by VectorBuilder View
mCherry/Puro mCherry fused with Puro Red Puromycin Allows cells to be visualized by red fluorescence and resistant to puromycin. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
mCherry/Hygro mCherry fused with Hygro Red Hygromycin B Allows cells to be visualized by red fluorescence and resistant to hygromycin B. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
mCherry/Bsd mCherry fused with Bsd Red Blasticidin Allows cells to be visualized by red fluorescence and resistant to blasticidin. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
TagBFP2/Neo TagBFP2 fused with Neo Blue Geneticin (G418) Allows cells to be visualized by blue fluorescence and resistant to geneticin (G418). Engineered by VectorBuilder View
TagBFP2/Puro TagBFP2 fused with Puro Blue Puromycin Allows cells to be visualized by blue fluorescence and resistant to puromycin. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
TagBFP2/Hygro TagBFP2 fused with Hygro Blue Hygromycin B Allows cells to be visualized by blue fluorescence and resistant to hygromycin B. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
TagBFP2/Bsd TagBFP2 fused with Bsd Blue Blasticidin Allows cells to be visualized by blue fluorescence and resistant to blasticidin. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
EGFP:T2A:Neo EGFP and Neo linked by T2A Green Geneticin (G418) Allows cells to be visualized by green fluorescence and resistant to geneticin (G418). Engineered by VectorBuilder View
EGFP:T2A:Puro EGFP and Puro linked by T2A Green Puromycin Allows cells to be visualized by green fluorescence and resistant to puromycin. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
EGFP:T2A:Hygro EGFP and Hygro linked by T2A Green Hygromycin B Allows cells to be visualized by green fluorescence and resistant to hygromycin B. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
EGFP:T2A:Bsd EGFP and Bsd linked by T2A Green Blasticidin Allows cells to be visualized by green fluorescence and resistant to blasticidin. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
mCherry:T2A:Neo mCherry and Neo linked by T2A Red Geneticin (G418) Allows cells to be visualized by red fluorescence and resistant to geneticin (G418). Engineered by VectorBuilder View
mCherry:T2A:Puro mCherry and Puro linked by T2A Red Puromycin Allows cells to be visualized by red fluorescence and resistant to puromycin. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
mCherry:T2A:Hygro mCherry and Hygro linked by T2A Red Hygromycin B Allows cells to be visualized by red fluorescence and resistant to hygromycin B. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
mCherry:T2A:Bsd mCherry and Bsd linked by T2A Red Blasticidin Allows cells to be visualized by red fluorescence and resistant to blasticidin. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
EGFP:P2A:Neo EGFP and Neo linked by P2A Green Geneticin (G418) Allows cells to be visualized by green fluorescence and resistant to geneticin (G418). Engineered by VectorBuilder View
EGFP:P2A:Puro EGFP and Puro linked by P2A Green Puromycin Allows cells to be visualized by green fluorescence and resistant to puromycin. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
EGFP:P2A:Hygro EGFP and Hygro linked by P2A Green Hygromycin B Allows cells to be visualized by green fluorescence and resistant to hygromycin B. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
EGFP:P2A:Bsd EGFP and Bsd linked by P2A Green Blasticidin Allows cells to be visualized by green fluorescence and resistant to blasticidin. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
mCherry:P2A:Neo mCherry and Neo linked by P2A mCherry Geneticin (G418) Allows cells to be visualized by mCherry fluorescence and resistant to geneticin (G418). Engineered by VectorBuilder View
mCherry:P2A:Puro mCherry and Puro linked by P2A mCherry Puromycin Allows cells to be visualized by mCherry fluorescence and resistant to puromycin. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
mCherry:P2A:Hygro mCherry and Hygro linked by P2A mCherry Hygromycin B Allows cells to be visualized by mCherry fluorescence and resistant to hygromycin B. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
mCherry:P2A:Bsd mCherry and Bsd linked by P2A mCherry Blasticidin Allows cells to be visualized by mCherry fluorescence and resistant to blasticidin. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
TagBFP2:T2A:Neo TagBFP2 and Neo linked by T2A Blue Geneticin (G418) Allows cells to be visualized by blue fluorescence and resistant to geneticin (G418). Engineered by VectorBuilder View
TagBFP2:T2A:Puro TagBFP2 and Puro linked by T2A Blue Puromycin Allows cells to be visualized by blue fluorescence and resistant to puromycin. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
TagBFP2:T2A:Hygro TagBFP2 and Hygro linked by T2A Blue Hygromycin B Allows cells to be visualized by blue fluorescence and resistant to hygromycin B. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
TagBFP2:T2A:Bsd TagBFP2 and Bsd linked by T2A Blue Blasticidin Allows cells to be visualized by blue fluorescence and resistant to blasticidin. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
TagBFP2:P2A:Neo TagBFP2 and Neo linked by P2A Blue Geneticin (G418) Allows cells to be visualized by blue fluorescence and resistant to geneticin (G418). Engineered by VectorBuilder View
TagBFP2:P2A:Puro TagBFP2 and Puro linked by P2A Blue Puromycin Allows cells to be visualized by blue fluorescence and resistant to puromycin. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
TagBFP2:P2A:Hygro TagBFP2 and Hygro linked by P2A Blue Hygromycin B Allows cells to be visualized by blue fluorescence and resistant to hygromycin B. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
TagBFP2:P2A:Bsd TagBFP2 and Bsd linked by P2A Blue Blasticidin Allows cells to be visualized by blue fluorescence and resistant to blasticidin. Engineered by VectorBuilder View
Chemiluminescent Reporters
Name Description Application Notes Maximum Emission (nm) References Sequence
Luciferase Firefly luciferase Most commonly used luciferase. 560 Anal Biochem. 175:5 (1988) View
Luc2 Humanized firefly luciferase Codon optimized to reduce cryptic transcription factor binding sites. 560 Promega Notes. 89:7 (2005) View
MetLuc Metridia luciferase Secreted luciferase that allows detection in cell culture medium without lysing cells. 480 J Biol Chem. 279:3212 (2004) View
Rluc Renilla luciferase Can be used as internal control in dual luciferase assay when paired with firefly luciferase. 480 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 88:4438 (1991) View
Nluc Nano Luciferase Small and super bright; can be used in dual luciferase assay when paired with firefly luciferase. 460 ACS Chem Biol. 7:1848 (2012) View
Aequorin Calcium-activated photoprotein isolated from the hydromedusan Aequorea victoria Oxidizes coelenterazine (a luciferin molecule) into coelenteramide in the presence of Ca2+, emitting blue light in the process. 465 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 82:3154 (1985) View
Note : 
  • Luc2, Rluc and Nluc are trademarks of Promega.
Chromogenic Reporters
Name Description Application Notes Substrate Color References Sequence
LacZ E. coli beta-galactosidase High sensitivity. X-gal or ONPG Blue (X-gal); yellow (ONPG) Microbiol Rev. 49:398 (1985) Ver 1 Ver 2
SEAP Human secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase Secreted protein that allows detection in cell culture medium without lysing cells. NBT/BCIP Purple-blue Gene. 66:1 (1988) View
GUSPlus A synthetic gusA gene based on the sequence from Staphylococcus sp., with a catalase intron inserted into the coding sequence to prevent expression in bacterial cells A reporter to investigate gene transfer from Agrobacterium to plants; produces a GUS protein detectable in recipient plant. X-Gluc Blue Nature. 433:629 (2005) View
Note : 
  • Some components have different versions that differ slightly in sequence but are functionally equivalent. VectorBuilder may use different versions depending on context.
  • GUSPlus contains an intron so that its length is not multiple of 3.
pH-Sensitive Fluorescent Reporters
Name Description Application Notes References Sequence
pHluorin2 Enhanced, ratiometric, pH-sensitive green florescent protein Has a bimodal excitation spectrum with peaks at 395 and 475 nm and an emission maximum at 509 nm; upon acidification, it has a dose-dependent decrease in the excitation at 395 nm with a corresponding increase in the excitation at 475 nm; it has a reversible excitation ratio change between pH 5.4~8.4. Nature. 394:192 (1998); Adv Biosci Biotechnol. 2:132 (2011); Front Plant Sci. 4:523 (2013) View
Superecliptic-pHluorin Red-shifted ecliptic pHluorin that is excited strongly by blue light at neutral pH but minimal fluorescence at acidic pH Displays a reversible excitation ratio change between pH 6.5~8.0. Biophys J. 79:2199 (2000); Front Plant Sci. 4:523 (2013) Ver 1 Ver 2
Regulatory Proteins
Name Description Application Notes Target Sites References Sequence
tTA Tetracycline transactivator It binds to TRE promoter to activate gene transcription only in the absence of tetracycline or its analogs (e.g. doxycycline). TRE Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 89:5547 (1992) View
rtTA Reverse tetracycline responsive transcriptional activator M2 (2nd generation) It binds to TRE promoter to activate gene transcription only in the presence of tetracycline or its analogs (e.g. doxycycline). It has higher sensitivity to the inducing drug and lower leaky activity in the absence of the drug compared to its predecessor, rtTA. TRE Science. 268:1766 (1995); Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97:7963 (2000) View
tTS Tetracycline transcriptional silencer It binds to TRE promoter to actively suppress gene transcription only in the absence of tetracycline or its analogs (e.g. doxycycline). TRE J Gene Med. 1:4 (1999) View
tTS/rtTA tTS and rtTA_M2 linked by T2A In the absence of tetracycline or its analogs (e.g. doxycycline), tTS binds to TRE promoter to actively suppress gene transcritpion whereas rtTA_M2 is unable to bind to TRE promoter. In the presence of the inducing drug, tTS dissociates from TRE promoter whereas rtTA_M2 binds to TRE promoter to activate gene transcription. Compared to using rtTA_M2 alone, which does not provide active repression, this system has lower leaky expression in the absence of the inducing drug. TRE Engineered by VectorBuilder based on Semin Cell Dev Biol. 13:121 (2002) View
Tet3G Improved reverse tetracycline responsive transcriptional activator (3rd generation) It binds to TRE3G promoter to activate gene transcription only in the presence of tetracycline or its analogs (e.g. doxycycline). It has higher sensitivity to the inducing drug compared to its predecessor, rtTA. TRE3G Gene Ther. 13:1382 (2006) View
MS2/P65/HSF1 Fusion protein of MS2 bacteriophage coat protein, NF-kappaB trans-activating subunit p65 and human heat-shock factor 1 activation domain Through MS2 binding to gRNA tetraloop and stem-loop 2, p65 and HSF1 are recruited to gRNA target site and activate transcription. EMBO J. 12:595 (1993); PLoS Biol. 7:e73 (2009); Redox Biol. 2:535 (2014) View
GAL4 Gal4 can bind to the galactose upstream activating sequence (UAS) to activate downstream genes expression Gal4 can bind to the promoters which bear the galactose upstream activating sequence (UAS), then activate downstream genes expression. UAS Development. 118:401 (1993) View
Gal4/VP16 Yeast transcription activator protein Gal4 DNA binding domain fused to VP16 transactivation domain Gal4 can bind to UAS to activate downstream gene transcription; this fusion protein of Gal4 and VP16 can strongly activate gene expression in zebrafish. UAS Dev Biol. 233:329 (2001) View
VP16 VP16 transcriptional activator domain encoded by HSV Activates gene expression, commonly used with other DNA binding proteins. Cell. 149:1447 (2012) View
VP64 Tetrameric repeat of the minimal activation domain of VP16 Strongly activates gene expression, commonly used with other DNA binding proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 95: 14628 (1998); Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97: 1495 (2000) View
scFv(GCN4)-sfGFP-GB1-VP64 Anti-GCN4 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody fused to superfolder-GFP (sfGFP) with a GB1 solubility tag and VP64 transcriptional activator domain Encodes a fusion protein consisting of GCN4 antibody, sfGFP and VP64; tightly binds to GCN4 peptide arrays (SunTag). SunTag Cell. 159: 635 (2014) View
KRAB Krüppel-associated box domain from human gene ZNF10 Inhibits gene expression, commonly used with other DNA binding proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 91:4509 (1994); Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97: 1495 (2000) View
MS2/P65/HSF1 Fusion protein of MS2 bacteriophage coat protein, NF-kappaB trans-activating subunit p65 and human heat-shock factor 1 activation domain Through MS2 binding to gRNA tetraloop and stem-loop 2, p65 and HSF1 are recruited to gRNA target site and activate transcription. EMBO J. 12:595 (1993); PLoS Biol. 7:e73 (2009); Redox Biol. 2:535 (2014) View
MS2/P65/HSF1:T2A:EGFP MS2/P65/HSF1 and EGFP linked by T2A Through MS2 binding to gRNA tetraloop and stem-loop 2, p65 and HSF1 are recruited to gRNA target site and activate transcription; can be visualized by green fluorescence. EMBO J. 12:595 (1993); Cell. 162:1113 (2015) View
MS2/P65/HSF1:T2A:mCherry MS2/P65/HSF1 and mCherry linked by T2A Through MS2 binding to gRNA tetraloop and stem-loop 2, p65 and HSF1 are recruited to gRNA target site and activate transcription; can be visualized by red fluorescence. EMBO J. 12:595 (1993); Cell. 162:1113 (2015) View
Recombinase
Name Description Application Notes Target Sites References Sequence
Cre Cyclization recombinase with SV40 nuclear localization signal Most commonly used site-specific recombinase LoxP and its variants (e.g. LoxN, Lox2272, Lox511, Lox66, Lox71) Nucleic Acids Res. 32:6086 (2004) View
InCre Cre with SV40 T-antigen intron inserted in the ORF Prevents recombinase expression in E. coli while maintaining function in mammalian cells. LoxP and its variants (e.g. LoxN, Lox2272, Lox511, Lox66, Lox71) Engineered by VectorBuilder View
Flpo Mouse codon-optimized version of Flpe recombinase with SV40 nuclear localization signal Higher efficiency compared to its predecessor, Flpe, in mammalian cells. FRT and its variants (e.g. FRT3, FRT5) PLoS One. 2:e162 (2007); Genesis. 48:512 (2010) View
InFlpo Flpo with SV40 T-antigen intron inserted in the ORF Prevents recombinase expression in E. coli while maintaining function in mammalian cells. FRT and its variants (e.g. FRT3, FRT5) Engineered by VectorBuilder View
Dre Dre Recombinase A highly efficient site-specific recombinase similar to Cre, but recognizing different target sites. Rox and its variants (e.g. Rox4R, Rox6R, Rox2N ) Nucleic Acids Res. 32:6086 (2004) View
InDre Dre with SV40 T-antigen intron inserted in the ORF Prevents recombinase expression in E.coli while maintaining function in mammalian cells. Rox and its variants (e.g. Rox4R, Rox6R, Rox2N ) Engineered by VectorBuilder View
PBase Native piggyBac transposase from Trichoplusia ni Recognizes the two TRs on the piggyBac transposon and inserts the flanked region including the two TRs into host chromosomal sites that contain the TTAA sequence through a precise cut-and-paste mechanism. PiggyBac inverted terminal repeat (ITR) Virology. 172:156 (1989); Cell. 122:473 (2005); Nat Genet. 39:922 (2007) View
hyPBase Hyperactive version of piggyBac transposase (PBase) created by mutagenesis Higher efficiency compared to its predecessor, PBase, in mammalian cells. PiggyBac invertet terminal repeat (ITR) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 108:1531 (2011) View
hyPBase(R372A/K375A/D450N) Excision competent/integration defective piggyBac transposase with R372A, K375A and D450N mutations Allows piggyBac transposon excision without potentially harmful reintegration. PiggyBac inverted terminal repeat (ITR) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110:E2279 (2013); J Biol Chem. 292: 6148 (2017) View
Tol2 Transposase encoded from Tol2 transposon, a member of hAT transposable element family found in medaka fish genome Catalyzes the transposition of a non-autonomous Tol2 construct (a construct containing a deletion in the transposase coding region but retaining the Tol2 ends.) Tol2 invertet terminal repeat (ITR) PLoS Genet. 2:e169 (2006); Gene. 425:64 (2008); Methods Mol Biol. 561:41 (2009) View
Cas Proteins
Name Description Application Notes PAM Sequence References Sequence
zCas9 Zebrafish codon-optimized version of S. pyogenes Cas9 with SV40 large T-antigen nuclear localization signals (nls) at both its amino and carboxyl termini Generates double-strand DNA breaks. NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 110: 13904 (2013) View
hCas9 Human codon-optimized CRISPR associated protein 9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (with 3xFLAG tag and nuclear localization signal), also known as SpCas9 Generates double-strand DNA breaks. NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Science. 339:819 (2013) View
Cas9(D10A) Human codon-optimized CRISPR associated protein 9 with D10A mutation, HA tag and nuclear localization signal Nickase; generates 5' overhang; can induce NHEJ with paired offset gRNAs; reduced off-target effect. NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Cell. 154: 1380 (2013) View
dCas9 Catalytically inactive Cas9, a variant of Cas9 9 bearing both D10A and H840A mutations Catalytically inactive but can be recruited by gRNAs to target sites; can be fused to other proteins to direct them to specific genomic locations (e.g. dCas9 fused with transcriptional activators or repressors can lead to activation or repression of target genes). NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Nat Biotechnol. 32: 347 (2014) View
dCas9/VP64 dCas9 fused with a VP64 acidic transactivation domain Used for RNA-guided transcriptional activation NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97:1495 (2000); Nat Methods. 10:973 (2013) View
dCas9/VPR dCas9 fused with a tripartite VP64-p65-Rta (VPR) transactivation domain Used for RNA-guided transcriptional activation. NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Nat Methods. 12:326 (2015) View
dCas9/KRAB dCas9 fused with a KRAB transcriptional silencing domain Used for RNA-guided transcriptional repression NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97:1495 (2000); Cell. 159:647 (2014) View
dCas9/KRAB/MeCP2 dCas9 fused with a carboxy terminal bipartite repressor domain, KRAB-MeCP2 Efficiently suppresses gene transcription by physically blocking RNA polymerase passage by dCas9 and further transcriptional inhibition by the KRAB-MeCP2 repressor domain. NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Cell. 88:471 (1997); Nat Methods. 15:611 (2018) View
dCas9-10xGCN4_v4 dCas9 with SV40 large T-antigen nuclear localization signals (nls) at both its amino and carboxyl termini, fused to an optimized GCN4 antibody-peptide pair (containing v4 version of the GCN4 peptide array with 10 copies of the peptide binding site, also know as SunTag10x_v4) Modulates transcription of endogenous genes by recruitment of multiple copies of regulatory effector domains to genomic sites of interest targeted by dCas9 protein via binding of scFv antibody to a GCN4 repeating peptide array termed SunTag. NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Cell. 159: 635 (2014) View
SpCas9-HF1 High-fidelity variant of SpCas9 Designed to reduce non-specific DNA contacts; fewer off-target cuts. NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Nature. 529:490 (2016) View
eSpCas9 Enhanced specificity SpCas9 variant Low off-target effects and robust on-target cleavage. NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Science. 351:84 (2016) View
BE3 rAPOBEC–XTEN–Cas9_D10A–UGI (rat cytidine deaminase enzyme fused with Cas9_D10A and uracil DNA glycosylase inhibitor via an XTEN linker) Converts cytosine (C) to uracil (U) between the 4th and 8th bases of the sgRNA binding site, targeting the nonbinding strand. The modified base can be permanently converted to thymine (T) following DNA replication or repair. NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Nature. 533:420 (2016); Nat Methods. 14:710 (2017) View
Cas12a Also known as Cpf1; single RNA-guided endonuclease of a class 2 CRISPR-Cas system from Acidaminococcus, human codon-optimized, and linked to an HA tag and nuclear localization signal Cleaves DNA via a staggered DNA double strand break. Able to process its own CRISPR RNA (crRNA), which can simplify multiplexed genome editing. TTTN Cell. 163:759 (2015);Nat Biotechnol. 35:31 (2017) View
Cas9/mSA hCas9 fused with monomeric streptavidin Used for efficient generation of targeted large insertions using biotinylated repair templates. NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Biotechnol Bioeng. 110:57 (2013); Nat Biotechnol. 36:632 (2018) View
SaCas9 Staphylococcus aureus CRISPR associated protein 9 with HA tag and nuclear localization signal Shorter sequence; especially useful in vector systems that have limited cargo space (e.g. AAV vectors). NNGRR; NNGRRT(preferred) Nature. 520:186 (2015) View
hCas9:T2A:Neo hCas9 and neomycin resistance gene linked by T2A Allows cells to express hCas9 protein and be resistant to neomycin. NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Engineered by VectorBuilder View
hCas9:T2A:Puro hCas9 and puromycin resistance gene linked by T2A Allows cells to express hCas9 protein and be resistant to puromycin. NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Engineered by VectorBuilder View
hCas9:T2A:Hygro hCas9 and hygromycin resistance gene linked by T2A Allows cells to express hCas9 protein and be resistant to hygromycin B. NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Engineered by VectorBuilder View
hCas9:T2A:Bsd hCas9 and blasticidin resistance gene linked by T2A Allows cells to express hCas9 protein and be resistant to blasticidin. NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Engineered by VectorBuilder View
hCas9:P2A:EGFP hCas9 and EGFP linked by P2A Allows cells to express hCas9 protein and be visualized by green fluorescence. NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Engineered by VectorBuilder View
hCas9:P2A:mCherry hCas9 and mCherry linked by P2A Allows cells to express hCas9 protein and be visualized by red fluorescence. NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Engineered by VectorBuilder View
DmCas9 Drosophila codon-optimized CRISPR associated protein 9 with nuclear localization signal Generates double-strand DNA breaks. NGG (preferred); NAG (less preferred) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 111:E2967 (2014) View
CjCas9 A small Cas9 orthologue derived from Campylobacter jejuni with a carboxy terminal nuclear localization signal and HA tag Shorter sequence; especially useful in vector systems that have limited cargo space (e.g. AAV vectors). Nat Commun. 8:14500 (2017) View
Transformation Genes
Name Description Application Notes References Sequence
SV40-T Simian virus 40 large T antigen Capable of inducing mlignant transformation of a variety of cell types; can be used to immortalize primary cells. J Virol. 64:3350 (1990) View
hHRAS[NM_176795.4] Homo sapiens Ras proto-oncogene. Belongs to the Ras family of small GTPases, whose members are related to the transforming genes of mammalian sarcoma retroviruses Mutations and overexpression of this gene can induce transformation of a variety of cell types. Nature. 304:596 (1983); Genes Dev.15:50 (2001); Oncogene. 21:4577 (2002) View
hTERT[NM_198253.3] Homo sapiens telomerase reverse transcriptase gene. Plays an improtant role in cellular senescence, and deregulation of telomerase expression in somatic cells may be involved in oncogenesis Capable of inducing transformation of a variety of cells, and can be used to immortalize primary human cells. Genes Dev.15:50 (2001); Cancer Res. 61:3556 (2001); Oncogene. 21:4577 (2002); PLoS Pathog.9:e1003284 (2013) View
Ad5E1A Human adenovirus type 5 E1A protein gene Capable of inducing cellular transformation. Can be used to immortalize various primary cells. Hum Gene Ther.11:2105 (2000); J Virol. 91:e01782 (2016) View
HPV16E6 Human papillomavirus type 16 transforming protein E6 gene Capable of inducing cellular transformation. Can be used to immortalize various primary cells. EMBO J.8:3905 (1989); Mol Cell J Virol. 65:4860 (1991); Biol. 24:2144 (2004) View
HPV16E7 Human papillomavirus type 16 transforming protein E7 gene Capable of inducing cellular transformation. Can be used to immortalize various primary cells. J. Gen. Virol. 70:1261 (1989); EMBO J.8:3905 (1989); J Virol.81:12689 (2007) View
hTP53(V143A) Homo sapiens tumor suppressor p53 gene with a V143A mutation Can be used to induce maligant transformation of a variety of cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 96:8438 (1999) View
Optogenetic Proteins
Name Description Application Notes References Sequence
ChR2 Human codon-optimized channelrhodopsin-2 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a blue light-gated, cation-selective transmembrane channel protein. It rapidly undergoes conformational change upon absorbing photons to open channel permeable to cations (Na+, K+, H+, Ca2+, etc.) Can activate excitable cells (such as neurons, muscle cells, pancreatic cells, and immune cells) by inducting depolarization of the cell membrane upon blue light stimulation; rapid ON-rate and moderate channel closing rate; maximum excitation is 470 nm. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 100:13940 (2003); Nature. 446:633 (2007); Exp Physiol.96:19 (2011) View
ChR2/mCherry ChR2 fused with mCherry by GCGGCCGCC mCherry can mark cellular localization of ChR2; maximum excitation of ChR2 is 470 nm; maximum excitation and emission of mCherry are 587 nm and 610 nm, respectively. Nature. 446:633 (2007) View
ChR2/EYFP ChR2 fused with EYFP by GCGGCCGCC EYFP can mark cellular localization of ChR2; maximum excitation of ChR2 is 470 nm; maximum excitation and emission of EYFP are 513 nm and 527 nm, respectively. Nature. 446:633 (2007) View
ChR2(H134R) A gain-of-function mutant (H134R) of human codon-optimized channelrhodopsin-2 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Compared to ChR2, it has increased light sensitivity, slower channel closing rate, enhanced stationary phtocurrent and modest reduction in desensitisation, but it is less temporally precise; maximum excitation is 470 nm. Curr Biol. 15:2279 (2005); Exp Physiol. 96:19 (2011) View
ChR2(H134R)/mCherry ChR2(H134R) fused with mCherry by GCGGCCGCC mCherry can mark cellular localization of ChR2_H134R; maximum excitation of ChR2_H134R is 470 nm; maximum excitation and emission of mCherry are 587 nm and 610 nm, respectively. Nature. 446:633 (2007) View
ChR2(H134R)/EYFP ChR2(H134R) fused with EYFP by GCGGCCGCC EYFP can mark cellular localization of ChR2_H134R; maximum excitation of ChR2_H134R is 470 nm; maximum excitation and emission of EYFP are 513 nm and 527 nm, respectively. Nature. 446:633 (2007) View
eNpHR2.0/EYFP Enhanced Halorhodopsin from Natronomonas pharaonis (NpHR) which is fused with EYFP. NpHR is a fast light-activated electrogenic Cl- pump. There is an nAChR-derived signal peptide tagged to the N-terminal of NpHR, and a Kir2.1-derived ER export signal peptide tagged to the C-terminal of EYFP to facilitate cell surface expression of NpHR Light activation of NpHR leads to cell hyperpolarization and inhibition of firing action potentials; increased peak photocurrent compared to original NpHR; no aggregation; low cellular toxicity; maximum excitation is 580 nm; maximum excitation and emission of EYFP are 513 nm and 527 nm, respectively. Nature. 446:633 (2007); Brain Cell Biol. 36:129 (2008) View
eNpHR3.0/EYFP Third generation of Halorhodopsin from Natronomonas pharaonis (NpHR) which is fused with EYFP. NpHR is a fast light-activated electrogenic Cl- pump. There is an nAChR-derived signal peptide tagged to the N-terminal of EYFP, and a Kir2.1-derived ER export signal peptide tagged to the C-terminal of EYFP to facilitate cell surface expression of NpHR Light activation of NpHR leads to cell hyperpolarization and inhibition of firing action potentials; increased peak photocurrent compared to original NpHR; no aggregation; low cellular toxicity; maximum excitation is 580 nm; maximum excitation and emission of EYFP are 513 nm and 527 nm, respectively. Front Behav Neurosci. 9: 286. (2015) View
eNpHR3.0/mCherry Third generation of Halorhodopsin from Natronomonas pharaonis (NpHR) which is fused with mCherry. NpHR is a fast light-activated electrogenic Cl- pump. There is an nAChR-derived signal peptide tagged to the N-terminal of mCherry, and a Kir2.1-derived ER export signal peptide tagged to the C-terminal of mCherry to facilitate cell surface expression of NpHR Light activation of NpHR leads to cell hyperpolarization and inhibition of firing action potentials; increased peak photocurrent compared to original NpHR; no aggregation; low cellular toxicity; maximum excitation is 580 nm; maximum excitation and emission of mCherry are 587 nm and 610 nm, respectively. Unpublished, provided by Karl Deisseroth through the UNC vector core View
GCaMP6s Variant of green fluorescent calcium indicator GCaMP6 with slow kinetics, ultrasensitive sensor of free calcium Rise time: 100-150 ms, Kd = 144 nM; Most sensitive Nature. 499:295 (2013); Cell Calcium. 58:638 (2015) View
GCaMP6m Variant of green fluorescent calcium indicator GCaMP6 with medium kinetics, ultrasensitive sensor of free calcium Rise time: 74-100 ms, Kd = 167 nM Nature. 499:295 (2013); Cell Calcium. 58:638 (2015) View
GCaMP6f Variant of green fluorescent calcium indicator GCaMP6 with fast kinetics, ultrasensitive sensor of free calcium Rise time: 50-75 ms, Kd = 375 nM; Fastest Nature. 499:295 (2013); Cell Calcium. 58:638 (2015) View
Yeast Selection Markers
Name Description Auxotrophic Complementation Application Notes References Sequence
URA3 Orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Uracil and uridine Allows yeast lacking endogenous URA3 gene to survive without uracil and uridine. Mol Gen Genet. 197:345 (1984); Genetics. 122:19 (1989) View
TRP1 Phosphoribosylanthranilate isomerase TRP1 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tryptophan Allows yeast lacking endogenous TRP1 gene to survive without tryptophan. Genetics. 122:19 (1989) View
HIS3 Imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Histidine Allows yeast lacking endogenous HIS3 gene to survive without histidine. Genetics. 122:19 (1989) View
LEU2 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Leucine Allows yeast lacking endogenous LEU2 gene to survive without leucine. Genetics. 122:19 (1989) View
Pluripotency Genes
Name Description Application Notes References Sequence
hMYC Homo sapiens c-myc proto-oncogene. Belongs to myelocytomatosis (Myc) family of transcription factors. Plays a role in cell cycle procession, apotosis and cellular transformation Mutations, overexpression, rearrangement and translocation of this gene can induce transformation or immortalization of a variety of cell types. Nature. 306:194 (1983); Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97:11198 (2000); Cancer Res. 65:2179 (2005); Mol Cancer Res. 5:1181 (2007); J Virol.81:12689 (2007) View
hOct4 Homo sapiens Oct-4 gene. Encodes a transcription factor containing a POU homeodomain that plays a key role in embryonic development and stem cell pluripotency. Aberrant expression in adult tissues is associated with tumorigenesis. Required for the maintenance of stem cell properties and malignant progression in various cancers. Can be used to reprogram a variety of cell types. Cell Research. 12:321 (2002); Science. 318:1917 (2007); J Stem Cells Regen Med. 6:149 (2010); DNA Cell Biol. 36:1000 (2017) View
hSOX2[NM_003106.4] Homo sapiens transcription factor SOX-2 gene. Belongs to the SRY-related HMG-box (SOX) family of transcription factors, which is involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of cell fate Required for the maintenance of stem cell properties and malignant progression in various cancers. Can be used to reprogram a variety of cell types. Science. 318:1917 (2007); J Stem Cells Regen Med. 6:149 (2010); DNA Cell Biol. 36:1000 (2017) View
mMyc Mus musculus myc proto-oncogene. Belongs to myelocytomatosis (Myc) family of transcription factors. Plays a role in cell cycle procession, apotosis and cellular transformation Mutations, overexpression, rearrangement and translocation of this gene can induce transformation or immortalization of a variety of cell types. Cell. 39:339 (1984); Nature. 320:760 (1986); Mol Cell Biol. 7:3899 (1987); Cell. 126:663 (2006); Nature. 451:141 (2008) View
mPou5f1[NM_013633.3] Mus musculus Oct-4 gene. Encodes a transcription factor containing a POU homeodomain that plays a key role in embryonic development and stem cell pluripotency. Required for the maintenance of stem cell properties. Can be used to reprogram a variety of cell types. Cell. 126:663 (2006); Nature. 448:318 (2007); Nature. 451:141 (2008) View
mSox2[NM_011443.4] Mus musculus transcription factor SOX-2 gene. Belongs to the SRY-related HMG-box (SOX) family of transcription factors, which is involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of cell fate Required for the maintenance of stem cell properties. Can be used to reprogram a variety of cell types. Cell. 126:663 (2006); Nature. 448:318 (2007); Nature. 451:141 (2008) View
hNanog Homo sapiens nanog homeobox gene. Encodes a DNA-binding homeobox-family transcription factor involved in embryonic stem (ES) cell proliferation, renewal, and pluripotency. Required for the maintenance of stem cell properties and malignant progression in various cancers. Can block ES cell differentiation, autorepress its own expression in differentiating cells, and can be used to reprogram a variety of cell types. Science. 318:1917 (2007); J Stem Cells Regen Med. 6:149 (2010); Mol Cell Biochem. 351:109 (2011); DNA Cell Biol. 36:1000 (2017) View
mNanog[NM_028016.3] Mus musculus nanog homeobox gene. Encodes a DNA-binding homeobox-family transcription factor involved in embryonic stem (ES) cell proliferation, renewal, and pluripotency. Required for the maintenance of stem cell properties. Can block ES cell differentiation, autorepress its own expression in differentiating cells, and can be used to reprogram a variety of cell types. Cell. 113:631 (2003); Nature. 448:318 (2007) View
hKLF4[NM_004235.6] Homo sapiens Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) gene. Belongs to the relatively large family of SP1-like transcription factors and is involved in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and somatic cell reprogramming. Required for the maintenance of stem cell properties. It can prevents ES cell differentiation and maintains ES cell self-renewal and pluripotency. Can be used to reprogram a variety of cell types. Can function as either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor depending on differing cellular contexts and cancer types. J Biol Chem. 285:9180 (2010); Nat Commun. 9:1261 (2018) View
mKlf4 Mouse Kruppel-like factor (Klf4) gene. Belongs to the relatively large family of SP1-like transcription factors and is involved in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and somatic cell reprogramming. Required for the maintenance of stem cell properties. It can prevents ES cell differentiation and maintains ES cell self-renewal and pluripotency. Can be used to reprogram a variety of cell types. Can function as either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor depending on differing cellular contexts and cancer types. J Biol Chem. 285:9180 (2010); Gene. 611: 27 (2017); Nat Commun. 9:1261 (2018) View
hLIN28A[NM_024674.6] Human lin-28 homolog A gene. Encodes a LIN-28 family RNA-binding protein that acts as a posttranscriptional regulator of genes involved in development, self-renewal of embryonic stem cells and metabolism. Overexpressed in human embryonic stem cells, primary human tumors and human cancer cell lines. It is dispensable for maintaining pluripotency. Regulate the self-renewal of stem cells. Can be used to promote efficient reprogramming of a variety of cell types. Enhances tissue repair in some adult tissues by reprogramming cellular bioenergetics. Promotes the expression of some metabolic enzymes. Can regulate glucose homeostasis in mammals and promote resistance to high fat diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes. Cell. 155: 778 (2013); Cell Stem Cell. 19:66 (2016) View
mLin28 Mouse lin-28 homolog A gene. Encodes a LIN-28 family RNA-binding protein that acts as a posttranscriptional regulator of genes involved in development, self-renewal of embryonic stem cells and metabolism. Highly expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells and during early embryogenesis. It is dispensable for maintaining pluripotency. Can be used to promote efficient reprogramming of a variety of cell types. Regulate the self-renewal of stem cells. Overexpression in mice can cause gigantism and a delay in puberty onset. Enhances tissue repair in some adult tissues by reprogramming cellular bioenergetics. Can promotes the expression of some metabolic enzymes. Can regulate glucose homeostasis in mammals and promote resistance to high fat diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes. Cell. 155: 778 (2013); Cell Stem Cell. 19:66 (2016) View
hESRRB[NM_004452.4] Human estrogen-related-receptor β gene. Encodes a member of the nuclear orphan receptor family that is involved in early development, pluripotency and reprogramming. Activates Oct4 transcription and sustains self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells. Can be used to reprogram a variety of cell types. J Biol Chem. 283:35825 (2008); FEBS Lett. 592:852 (2018); J Cell Physiol. 233:1601 (2018) View
mEsrrb[NM_011934.4] Mouse estrogen-related-receptor β gene. Encodes a member of the nuclear orphan receptor family that is involved in early development, pluripotency and reprogramming. Activates Oct4 transcription and sustains self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells. Can be used to reprogram a variety of cell types. J Biol Chem. 283:35825 (2008); FEBS Lett. 592:852 (2018); J Cell Physiol. 233:1601 (2018) View
mOSKM A combination of four reprogramming factor genes (mouse Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c‐Myc) linked by three 2A “self-cleaving” peptides. Involved in reprogramming, or generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Their expression commonly increases in metastatic cancers. Required for the maintenance of stem cell properties. It can prevents ES cell differentiation and maintains ES cell self-renewal and pluripotency. Can be used to reprogram both embryonic and adult somatic cells. Stem Cells Int. 2016:9451492 (2016); Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 1864:1359 (2017) View
hOSKM A combination of four reprogramming factor genes (human Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c‐Myc) linked by three 2A “self-cleaving” peptides. Involved in reprogramming, or generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Their expression commonly increases in metastatic cancers. Required for the maintenance of stem cell properties. It can prevents ES cell differentiation and maintains ES cell self-renewal and pluripotency. Can be used to reprogram both embryonic and adult somatic cells. Stem Cells Int. 2016:9451492 (2016); Stem Cells Int. 2019: 1393791 (2019) View