Protein Linkers

VectorBuilder offers many popular vector components that users can choose from when designing their vectors. The tables below provide detailed information on these popular components, which are listed separately by category.
Note:
Linkers, which are used to connect multiple ORFs driven by a single promoter, come in two types:
  • Read-through linker (e.g. fusion linker or 2A peptide): It assumes that the upstream ORF lacks stop codon such that translation runs from the upstream ORF through the linker into the downstream ORF.
  • Non-read-through linker (e.g. IRES): It assumes that the upstream ORF ends with stop codon such that translation of the upstream ORF terminates before reaching the linker.
2A Peptides (read-through linker)
Name Description Application Notes References Sequence
T2A Self-cleaving 2A peptide from Thosea asigna virus Causes co-translational cleavage of the encoded polypeptide. Multiple proteins can be made from a polycistronic transcript containing multiple ORFs separated by 2A. P2A and T2A have higher cleavage efficiency compared to other 2As. PLoS One. 6:e18556 (2011) View
P2A Self-cleaving 2A peptide from Porcine teschovirus-1 Causes co-translational cleavage of the encoded polypeptide. Multiple proteins can be made from a polycistronic transcript containing multiple ORFs separated by 2A. P2A and T2A have higher cleavage efficiency compared to other 2As. PLoS One. 6:e18556 (2011) View
F2A Self-cleaving 2A peptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus Causes co-translational cleavage of the encoded polypeptide. Multiple proteins can be made from a polycistronic transcript containing multiple ORFs separated by 2A. PLoS One. 6:e18556 (2011) View
E2A Self-cleaving 2A peptide from Equine rhinitis A virus Causes co-translational cleavage of the encoded polypeptide. Multiple proteins can be made from a polycistronic transcript containing multiple ORFs separated by 2A. PLoS One. 6:e18556 (2011) Ver 1 Ver 2
T2A(dme) Self-cleaving 2A peptide from Thosea asigna virus, codon-optimized for Drosophila melanogaster. Causes co-translational cleavage of the encoded polypeptide. Multiple proteins can be made from a polycistronic transcript containing multiple ORFs separated by 2A. P2A and T2A have higher cleavage efficiency compared to other 2As. PLoS One. 9:e100637 (2014); Genetics. 190:1139 (2012) View
P2A(dme) Self-cleaving 2A peptide from Porcine teschovirus-1, codon-optimized for Drosophila melanogaster. Causes co-translational cleavage of the encoded polypeptide. Multiple proteins can be made from a polycistronic transcript containing multiple ORFs separated by 2A. P2A and T2A have higher cleavage efficiency compared to other 2As. PLoS One. 9:e100637 (2014); Genetics. 190:1139 (2012) View
E2A(dme) Self-cleaving 2A peptide from Equine rhinitis A virus, codon-optimized for Drosophila melanogaster. Causes co-translational cleavage of the encoded polypeptide. Multiple proteins can be made from a polycistronic transcript containing multiple ORFs separated by 2A. PLoS One. 9:e100637 (2014); Genetics. 190:1139 (2012) View
Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (non-read-through linker)
Name Description Application Notes References Sequence
IRES Encephalomyocarditis virus internal ribosome entry site Recruits ribosome to initiate translation internally on a transcript independent of its 5' end. Multiple proteins can be made from a polycistronic transcript containing multiple ORFs separated by IRES. Biotechniques. 41:283 (2006) Ver 1 Ver 2
Ubx-IRES Drosophila melanogaster Ultrabithorax internal ribosome entry site Recruits ribosomes to initiate translation internally on a transcript independent of its 5' end. Multiple proteins can be made from a polycistronic transcript containing multiple ORFs separated by IRES. Development. 122:747 (1996); The EMBO Journal. 6:1775 (1987) View